As Gilbert White，Darwin ， and others observed long ago， all species appear to have theinnate capacity to increase their numbers from generation to generation. The task forecologistsis to untangle the environmentaand biologicalfactorsthat hold this intrinsiccapacity for population growth in check over the long run. The great variety of dynamicbehaviorsexhibitedby differentpopulationmakes thistaskmore difficult：sompopulations remain roughly constant from year to year; others exhibit regular cycles ofabundance and scarcity; still others vary wildly， with outbreaks and crashes that arein some cases plainly correlated with the weather， and in other cases not.To impose some order on this kaleidoscopeof patterns ， one school of thought proposesdividing populations into two groups. These ecologists posit that the relatively steadypopulations havedensity-dependent growth parameters; that is， rates ofbirth ， death ，and migrationwhich depend strongly on population density. The highly varying populationshave density-independent growth parameters， with vital rates buffeted by environmentalevents ;these rates fluctuate in a way that is wholly independent of population density.This dichotomy has its uses， but it can cause problems if taken too literally. Forone thing ， no population can be driven entirely by density-independent factors all thetime. No matter how severely or unpredictably birth， death ， and migration rates may befluctuatingaround theirlong-termaverages ， ifthere were no density-dependenteffects ，the populationwould ， in the long run ， eitherincrease or decrease without bound (barringa miracle by which gains and losses canceled exactly)。 Put another way， it may be thaton average 99 percent of all deaths in a populationarise from density-independentcauses ，and only one percent from factors varying with density.The factorsmaking up the one percentmay seem unimportant， and their cause may be correspondingly hard to determine. Yet，whether recognized or not， they will usually determine the long-term average populationdensity.In order to understand the nature of theecologist ’s investigation， we may think ofthe density-dependent effectson growth parameters as the signal ecologists are trying toisolateand interpret， one that tends to make the population increase from relativelylowvalues or decrease from relatively high ones， while the density-independent effects actto produce noise in the populationdynamics.For populationsthatremain relativelyconstant ， or that oscillate around repeated cycles， the signal can be fairly easilycharacterized and its effects described， even though the causative biological mechanismmay remain unknown. For irregularly fluctuating populations， we are likely to have toofew observations to have any hope of extracting the signal from the overwhelming noise.But it now seems clear that all populationsare regulatedby a mixture of density-dependentand density-independent effects in varying proportions.
1. The author of the text is primarily concerned with
[A] Discussing two categories of factorsthat controlpopulationgrowth and assessingtheir relative importance.
[B] Describinghow growth ratesin naturalpopulationsfluctuateover time andexplaining why these changes occur.
[C] Proposing a hypothesisconcerning population size and suggesting ways to test it.
[D] Posing a fundamental question about environmentalfactorsin populationgrowth andpresenting some currently accepted answer.
2. It can be inferred from the text that the author considers the dichotomy discussedto be
[A] Applicable only to erratically fluctuating populations.
[B] instrumental， but only if its limitations are recognized.
[C] Dangerously misleading in most circumstances.
[D] A complete and sufficient way to account for observed phenomena.
3.to the text ， allof the followingbehaviors have been exhibitedby differentpopulations EXCEPT
[A] Roughly constant population levels from year to year.
[B] Regular cycles of increases and decreases in numbers.
[C] Erratic increases in numbers correlated with the weather.
[D] Unchecked increases in numbers over many generations.
4. The discussion concerning population in the third paragraph serves primarily to
[A] Demonstrate the difficultiesecologistsface in studying density-dependentfactorslimiting population growth.
[B] Advocate more rigorous study of density-dependent factors in population growth.
[C] Prove that the death rates of any populationare never entirelydensity-independent.
[D] underline the importance of even small density-dependent factors in regulatinglong-term population densities.
5. In the text， the author does all of the following EXCEPT
[A] Cite the views of other biologists.
[B] Define a basic problem that the text addresses.
[C] Present conceptual categories used by other biologists.
[D] Describe the results of a particular study.
1. 「答案」 A
「考点解析」这是一道中心主旨题。本文的中心主旨句在第三段的首句。如果考生能够抓住第三段的首句就等于抓住了整篇文章的论述结构。该句中的“dichotomy ”(两分法)就是正确选项中的“ two categories ”。考生在解题时应首先抓住每篇文章的中心主旨句，因为这决定了对全文
2. 「答案」 B
「考点解析」这是一道细节推导题。根据题干中的“dichotomy ”可将本题的答案信息来源迅速确定在第二段的首句。如果考生能够正确理解该句中“ but ”一词前后的内容，就可以找出本题的正确选项 B. 考生在解题时一定要正确理解原文所传达的含义，即进行正确的细节推导。
3. 「答案」 D
「考点解析」这是一道审题定位与中心主旨题。根据本题题干中的“differentpopulations ”可将本题的答案信息来源确定在首段的第一句，因为该句中的“allspecies ”实际上指的就是题干中的“ differentpopulations ”。从第一段的首句入手并且仔细阅读首段的第二句，就可以找出本题的正确选项D，因为该选项所传达的信息与原文第一段第一、二句所传达的信息不一致。考生在解题时一定要学会迅速审题定位的能力。
4. 「答案」 D
「考点解析」本题是一道归纳推导题。题干已明确指出该题的答案信息来源在第三段。第三段主要陈述“ density -dependent factors ”的作用，通过仔细阅读第三段，尤其是第三段的最后三句话，考生可以得知本文作者在第三段是在强调“density- dependent factors ”的作用。可D是本题的正确选项。考生在理解原文时一定要注意掌握归纳推导的能力。
5. 「答案」 D
「考点解析」本题是一道写作手法题。这是一道比较难的题目，旨在考察考生的语言功底。本文作者在论述自己的观点时运用了各种写作手段。选项A、B、 C 中所涉及的内容分别在第一段、第三段和第二段中出现。考生一定要提高对原文各种写作手段的认识。
Bernard Bailyn has recentlyreinterpretedthe early historyof the United States by applyingnew socialresearchfindingson theexperiencesofEuropean migrants.Inhisreinterpretation,migrationbecomes the organizingprinciplefor rewritingthe historyofpreindustrial North America. His approach rests on four separate propositions.The firstof these asserts that residentsof early modern England moved regularlyabouttheir countryside; migrating to the New World was simply a natural spillover. Although atfirstthe colonies held littlepositiveattractionfor the English D they would rather havestayed home D by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America becausethey regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that, contrary to thenotion that used to flourish in America history textbooks, there was never a typical NewWorld community.For example, the economic and demographiccharacterof early New Englandtowns varied considerably.Bailyn's third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among the manythousands of migrants:one group came as indenturedservants,another came to acquire land.Surprisingly,Bailyn suggests that those who recruitedindentured servants were the drivingforces of transatlanticmigration.These colonialentrepreneurshelped determine the socialcharacterof people who came to preindustrialNorth America.At first,thousands ofunskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730's, however, American employers demandedskilled artisans.Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized hinterland of theEuropean culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were partof an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the empire into English core and colonialperiphery, as Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, asBailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in England. But whatof seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers created effective laws, built adistinguished university, and published books Bailyn might respond that New England wasexceptional. However, the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans hadpowerful effects on North American culture.Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of indenturedservantswho migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experience with thepolitical development of the United States. Evidence presented in his work suggests howwe might make such a connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for theperiod during which they had sold their time to American employers. It is not surprisingthat as soon as they served their time they passed up good wages in the cities and headedwest to ensure theirpersonal independence by acquiringland. Thus, it is in the west thata peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were suspicious ofauthority and intensely anti-aristocratic.
1.Which of the followingstatements about migrants to colonialNorth America is supportedby information in the text
[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as indenturedservants than as free agents interested in acquiring land.
[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more successful atmaking a livelihood than were farmers and artisans.
[C] Migrants to colonialNorth America were more successfulat acquiringtheir own landduring the eighteenth century than during the seventeenth century.
[D] By the 1730's,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by Americanemployers than were unskilled laborers.
2.The author of the text states that Bailyn failed to
[A] Give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of thecolonies and England.
[B] Describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds preserved theirculture in the United States.
[C] Take advantage of social research on the experiences of colonists who migrated tocolonial North America specifically to acquire land.
[D] Relate the experience of the migrants to the politicalvalues that eventuallyshapedthe character of the United States.
3.Which of the following best summarizes the author's evaluation of Bailyn's fourthproposition
[A] It is totally implausible.
[B] It is partially acceptable.
[C] It is highly admirable.
[D] It is controversial though persuasive.
4.According to the text,Bailyn and the author agree on which of the followingstatementsabout the culture of colonial New England
[A] High culture in New England never equaled the high culture of England.
[B] The culturalachievements of colonialNew England have generallybeen unrecognizedby historians.
[C] The colonistsimitatedthe high cultureof England ， and did not develop a culturethat was uniquely their own.
[D] The southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture of New England.
5.The author of the text would be most likely to agree with which of the followingstatements about Bailyn's work
[A] Bailyn underestimates the effects of Puritan thought on North American culture.
[B] Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of the colonies on Great Britain.
[C] Bailyn'sdescriptionof thecoloniesas part of an Anglo-American empireis misleading and incorrect.
[D] Bailyn failedto test his propositionson a specificgroup of migrants to colonialNorth America.
「考点解析」这是一道审题定位题。题干中的“migrants ”一词暗示本题的答案信息在第一段或第三段，因为这两段的首句都含有“migrants ”一词。又根据题干中的“ supported ”一词，我们可以推断出本题的答案信息来源应该在原文的第三段，因为作者应该在第三段提出相应证据来“支持”( supported )自己的观点。通过仔细阅读和理解第三段，尤其是第三段的尾句，我们可以推导出本题的正确选项应该是D.考生在解题时一定要有审题定位的能力，更要具备善于理解原文中启承转合所传达的含义。
「考点解析」这是一道细节理解题。题干中的“failed ”一词暗示本题的答案信息应该在尾段，因为尾段中含有“ fails ”一词。根据阅读和理解首段尾句，我们可以推导出本题的正确选项是D.考生在解题时一定要善于理解原文中所传达的中心含义。
「考点解析」本题是一道归纳推导题。本题题干中的“Bailyn ‘s fourth proposition”将本题的答案信息来源确定在原文的第四段。通过仔细阅读和理解本段的每一句话，尤其是第二、三句话和四、五句话，我们可以推导出本题的正确选项应该是B. 考生在解题时一定要善于归纳和推导原文的内容，更要善于体会上下句之间的语意关系。
「考点解析」这是一道细节推导题。题干中的“culture ”一词暗示本题的答案信息来源在第四段，因为第四段首句包含“ culture ”一词。 通过仔细阅读和理解第四段的每一句话，尤其是第四句，我们可以推导出本题的正确选项应该是A. 考生在解题时一定要注意原文中重点词语所表达的含义，以及重点词语在选项中的替换形式。
「考点解析」这是一道审题定位题。题干并没有明确指出本题答案信息在原文中的准确位置。在这种情况下，考生一定要抓住全文的中心主旨，以及每段的核心句。本题的答案信息来源在第四段的尾句，这是一个由转折词“ however”引导的句子。通过仔细阅读理解本句，我们可以推导出本题的正确选项是 A. 考生在解题时一定要重视原文中表达启承转合的词语，因为这往往是出题的重点。
Roger Rosenblatt ’s book Black Fiction,in attemptingto apply literaryratherthansociopolitical criteria to its subject, successfully alters the approach taken by mostprevious studies. As Rosenblatt notes, criticism of Black writing has often served as apretextfor expounding on Black history.Addison Gayle’s recent work, for example, judgesthe value of Black fiction by overtly political standards, rating each work according tothe notions of Black identity which it propounds.Although fictionassuredly springs from politicalcircumstances ，its authors react tothose circumstances in ways other than ideological, and talking about novels and storiesprimarilyas instrumentsof ideologycircumvents much of the fictional enterprise.Rosenblatt ’s literaryanalysisdisclosesaffinitiesand connections among works of Blackfiction which solely political studies have overlooked or ignored. Writing acceptable criticism ofBlack fiction, however, presupposes giving satisfactory answers to a number of questions.First of all, is there a sufficient reason, other than the facial identity of the authors, to group together works by Black authorsSecond, how does Black fiction make itself distinct from other modern fiction with which it islargely contemporaneous Rosenblatt shows that Black fiction constitutes a distinct bodyof writingthat has an identifiable， coherent literarytradition.Looking at novels writtenby Black over the last eighty years, he discovers recurringconcerns and designs independentof chronology. These structures are thematic, and they spring, not surprisingly, from thecentralfact that the Black charactersin these novels exist in a predominantlywhite culture,whether they try to conform to that culture or rebel against it.Black Fictiondoes leave some aestheticquestions open. Rosenblatt ’s thematic analysispermits considerable objectivity; he even explicitly states that it is not his intentionto judge the merit of the various works D yet his reluctance seems misplaced, especiallysince an attempt to appraise might have led to interesting results. For instance, some ofthe novels appear to be structurallydiffuse.Is this a defect,or are the authors workingout of, or trying to forge, a different kind of aesthetic In addition, the style of someBlack novels, like JeanToomey’s Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism; does thistechnique provide a counterpointto the prevalenttheme that portrays the fate against whichBlack heroes are pitted,a theme usuallyconveyed by more naturalisticmodes of expressionIn spite of such omissions, what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion makes foran astute and worthwhile study. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringingto our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James WeldonJohnson’s Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Its argument is tightly constructed, andits forthright, lucid style exemplifies levelheaded and penetrating criticism.
1. The author of the text is primarily concerned with __________.
[A] Evaluating the soundness of a work of criticism.[B] Comparing various critical approaches to a subject.
[C] Discussing the limitations of a particular kind of criticism.
[D] Summarizing the major points made in a work of criticism.
2. The author of the text believes that Black Fiction would have been improved hadRosenblatt __________.
[A] Evaluated more carefully the ideological andhistoricalaspects of Black fiction.
[B] Attempted to be more objective in his approach to novels and stories by Blackauthors.
[C] Explorein greaterdetailthe recurrentthematicconcerns of Black fictionthroughout its history.
[D] Assessed the relative literary merit of the novels he analyzes thematically.
3.author ’s discussion of Black Fiction can be best described as __________.
[A] Pedantic and contentious.
[B] Critical but admiring.
[C] Ironic and deprecating.
[D] Argumentative but unfocused.author of the text employs all of the following in the discussion ofRosenblatt ’s
4.book EXCEPT： __________.
[A] Rhetorical questions.
[B] Specific examples.
[C] Comparison and contrast.
[D] Definition of terms.
5. The author of the text refers to James WeldonJohnson’s Autobiography of anEx-Colored Man most probably in order to __________.
[A] point out affinitiesbetween Rosenblatt ’s method of thematic analysis and earliercriticism.
[B] Clarify the point about expressionistic style made earlier in the passage.
[C] Qualify the assessment ofRosenblatt ’s book made in the first paragraph of thepassage.
[D] give a specific example of one of the accomplishments ofRosenblatt ’s work.
「考点解析」这是一道中心主旨题。通过阅读本文各段尤其是首段第一句和尾段第一句，我们可以推断出本题的正确选项应该是突出“evaluating ”(评价)一词的选项A. 考生在解题时一定要注意段落的中心主旨句，以及每句话所表达的内含和作用。
2.「答案」 D「考点解析」这是一道审题定位与反推题。从本题题干中的“would have been improved ”可推断出考生要在原文中寻找到谈论某一方面“不足”的地方。尾段首句的“such omissions ”(这样的忽略)暗示本题的答案信息来源应该在倒数第二段。通过仔细阅读和理解倒数第二段，可将本题的答案信息来源确定在倒数第二段的第二句。根据倒数第二段第二句的内容进行反推，就可得出本题的正确选项是D.考生在解题时一定要具备利用上下段之间的关系迅速审题定位的能力，更要具备反推即逆向思维的能力。
「考点解析」这是一道写作手法题型。本题型旨在考察考生的语言基本功。这是一道较难的题目。本题 A、B、 C 所涉及的内容可分别在第三段的第二、三句、第四段的第三句以及第一段的第三句里找到。第一段的第三句涉及B和 C两个选项。选项D“definitionof terms”(给词语下定义)在原文中没有涉及，故本选项是正确答案。考生在解题时一定要注意英文中常见的写作手段。
「考点解析」这是一道例(举)证题。通过题干中的“WeldonJohnson''sAutobiography of anEx-Colored M an”可将本题的答案信息来源迅速确定在尾段的第二句，本句中的“like ”(例如)一词暗示本题的正确选项应该是含有“specific example”的选项D.考生在解题时一定要注意原文中某些关键词的应用和理解。
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise ; and to integrate action into the process of thinking. Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness. Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bitsm of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns.One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later.Analysis is inextricably tiedto actionin thinking/actingcycles,in which managers develop thoughtsabout theircompanies and organizations not by analyzing aproblematic situation and then acting, butby acting and analyzing in close concert.Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, seniormanagers often instigatea course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They thenuse the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. Oneimplicationof thinking/actingcycles is that action is often part of definingthe problem,not just of implementing the solution.
1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to
[A] Speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem.
[B] Identify a problem.
[C] Bring together disparate facts.
[D] Stipulate clear goals.
2. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on management mentionedin line 1, paragraph 2
[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model ofdecision analysis.
[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficientlylarge sample of actual managers.
[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than onwhat managers do.
[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.
3. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probablybe one major differencein behavior between Manager X, who uses intuitionto reach decisions,and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis
[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
[B] Manager X checks possiblesolutions toa problem by systematicanalysis ; ManagerY does not.
[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; ManagerY does not.
[D] Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creatinga solutionto a problem ;Manager X does not.
4. The text provides support for which of the following statements
[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formaldecision analysis.
[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
[C] Managers'' intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
[D] Intuitionenables managers to employ theirpracticalexperience more efficiently.
5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the text
[A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
[B] A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
[D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
1. 「答案」 D
「考点解析」这是一道归纳推导题。本题题干中的senior managers暗示本题的答案信息在第三段 , 因为第三段首句包含题干中的senior managers 。通过仔细阅读和理解本段中所谈到的五点,我们可推导出本题的正确选项是选项D.本题选项 A、B、C所涉及的内容分别在本段的第五点、第一点和第三点提到。考生在解题时一定要学会认真归纳和总结原文所表达的每一层含义。
2. 「答案」 D
「考点解析」这是一道句间关系题。题干已将本题的答案信息圈定在第二段。本段中的第二句是本题答案信息的最主要来源, 通过阅读和理解此句 , 我们可推导出本题的正确选项是D.考生在解题时一定要适当理解上下句之间的关系。
3. 「答案」 C
「考点解析」本题是一道审题定位题。题干中的who uses intuition to reach decisions暗示本题的答案信息在第四段, 因为第四段首句含有和题干中who uses intuitionto reach decisions大致相同的the intuitive style of executive management。通过仔细阅读和理解第四段的每一句话 , 我们可发现第四段的第一句话都在强调act (行动) , 可见本题的正确选项应该是强调行动的选项 C.本题的答案信息来源是第四段的第二句话。考生在解题时一定要首先准确地审题定位, 然后要善于归纳和理解原文中的中心主旨信息。
4. 「答案」 D
「考点解析」本题是一道审题定位题。题干中并没有明确指出本题答案信息在原文的准确位置。在这种情况下 , 考生往往迷失解题思路。在考生迷失解题思路时一定要牢记全文中心主旨, 并且抓住各段的核心句。 本文的中心主旨句在第一段的尾句。如果考生能够抓住第一段的尾句, 并结合第三段的第四、五句 , 就可以推导出本题的正确选项应该是D.考生在解题时 , 尤其是在迷失解题思路时, 一定要首先抓全文的中心主旨句, 同时还要抓一些明确表示启承转合关系的句子结构。
5. 「答案」 B
「考点解析」本题是一道段落结构题。第一句话中的do not 和第二句句首的rather是破解本题的关键。抓住这两个关键就可以推导出本题的正确选项应该是B. 考生在解题时一定要注意表示否定的词语以及表示启承转合的词语, 更要注意句子之间的相互关系。
California is a land of variety and contrast. Almost every type of physical land feature ， sort of arctic ice fields and tropical jungles can be found within its borders. Sharply contrasting types of land often lie very close to one another. People living in Bakersfield ， for instance，can visit the Pacific Ocean and the coastal plain ， the fertile San Joaquin Valley ， the arid Mojave Desert ， and the high Sierra Nevada， all within a radius of about 100 miles. In other areas it is possible to go snow skiing in the morning and surfing in the evening of the same day ， without having to travel long distance. Contrast abounds in California. The highest point in the United States (outside Alaska ) is in California ， and so is the lowest point (including Alaska )。 Mount Whitney ， 14，494 feet above sea level，is separated from Death Valley ， 282 feet below sea level，by a distance of only 100 miles. The two areas have a difference in altitude of almost three miles. California has deep ， clear mountain lakes like Lake Tahoe ， the deepest in the country， but it also has shallow， salty desert lakes. It has Lake Tulainyo ， 12，020 feet above sea level， and the lowest lake in the country ， the Salton Sea， 236 feet below sea level. Some of its lakes ， like Owens Lake in Death Valley ， are not lakes at all： they are dried up lake beds. In addition to mountains ，lakes， valleys，deserts， and plateaus，California has its Pacific coastline， stretching longer than the coastlines of Oregon and Washington combined.
1. Which of the following is the lowest point in the United States?
A. Lake Tulainyo B. Mojave desert C. Death Valley D. The Salton Sea
2. Where is the highest point in the United States located ?
A. Lake Tahoe.
B. Sierra Nevada. C. Mount Whitney.
3. How far away is Death Valley from Mount Whitney?
A. About 3 miles.
D. 14，494 feet.
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as being within a radius ofabout 100 miles of Bakersfield ?
A. The Pacific Ocean.
B. San Joaquin Valley.
C. Mojave Desert.
D. Oregon andWashington.
5. Which statement best demonstrates that California is a land of variety and contrast ?
A. The highest lake in California is Lake Tulainyo.
B. It is possible to go surfing and snow skiing in some parts of California without having totravel long distance.
C. Sierra Nevada， San Joaquin Valley， Mojave Desert and the Pacific Ocean all lie withina radius of about 100 miles.
D. Owens Lake ， in Death Valley ， is not really a lake at all.
1. C) 这是一道细节题。 根据第三段所给的海拔高度，可知美国最低点在death valley.
2. D) 此题很容易误选为C，这是因为第三段提到Mount Whitney 的海拔高度;但是要注意此段第二句提到美国最高点时在括号中补充说明这个最高点是在Alaska 以外的。这就说明美国的海拔最高点不是Mount Whitney ，而是位于 Alaska.
3. B) 这是一道细节题。根据第三段可找出答案。
4. D) 根据第二段可知答案。
5. C) 文中说加利福尼亚是一个地貌多样，富于变化的地方，而选项C 是一个最突出的例子。
The tourist trade is booming. With all this coming and going ， you'd expect greater understanding o develop between the nations of the world. Not a bit of it ! Superb systems of communication by air， sea and land make it possible for us to visit each other's countries at a moderate cost. What was once the 'grand tour' ， reserved for only the very rich ， is now within everybody's grasp ?
The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at. Modern travelers enjoy a level of comfort which the lords and ladies on grand tours in the old days couldn't have dreamed of. But what's the sense of this mass exchange of populations if the nations of the world remain basically ignorant of each other?
Many tourist organizations are directly responsible for this state of affairs. They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population. The modern tourist leads a cosseted， sheltered life. He lives at international hotels ， where he eats his international food and sips his international drink while he gazes at the natives from a distance. Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored. The tourist is allowed to see only what the organizers want him to see and no more. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own ; and anyway， language is always a barrier， so he is only too happy to be protected in this way. At its very worst ， this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization.
The summer quarters of the inhabitants of the cite universitaire ： are temporarily reestablished on the island of Corfu. Blackpool is recreated at Torremolinos where the traveler goes not to eat paella， but fish and chips. The sad thing about this situation is that it leads to the persistence of national stereotypes. We don't see the people of other nations as they really are， but as we have been brought up to believe they are. You can test this for yourself. Take five nationalities ， say， French， German， English， American and Italian. Now in your mind， match them with these five adjectives ： musical， amorous， cold， pedantic， native. Far from providing us with any insight into the national characteristics of the peoples just mentioned ， these adjectives actually act as barriers. So when you set out on your travels， the only characteristics you notice are those which confirm your preconceptions. You come away with the highly unoriginal and inaccurate impression that ， say，'Anglo-Saxons are hypocrites' of that 'Latin peoples shout a lot'. You only have to make a few foreign friends to understand how absurd and harmful national stereotypes are. But how can you make foreign friends when the tourist trade does its best to prevent you ? Carried to an extreme， stereotypes can be positively dangerous. Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic fact 〞how trite it sounds ! 每 That all people are human. We are all similar to each other and at the same time all unique.
1. The best title for this passage is
[A] Tourism contributes nothing to increasing understanding between nations.
[B] Tourism is tiresome.
[C] Conducted tour is dull.
[D] Tourism really does something to one's country.
2. What is the author's attitude toward tourism ?
[A] apprehensive. [B]negative. [C] critical. [D] appreciative.
3. Which word in the following is the best to summarize Latin people shout a lot?
[A] silent. [B] noisy. [C] lively. [D] active.
4. The purpose of the author's criticism is to point out
[A] conducted tour is disappointing.
[B]the way of touring should be changed.
[C] when traveling ， you notice characteristics which confirm preconception.
[D] national stereotypes should be changed.
5. What is 'grand tour' now ?
[A] moderate cost.
[B]local sight-seeing is investigated by the tourist organization.
[C] people enjoy the first-rate comforts.
[D] everybody can enjoy the 'grand tour'
1.A 旅游对增进民族了解毫无建树。第二段开始点出，许多旅游组织直接负责旅游事宜，他们有意识不让旅游者接触当地居民，让他们过着一种关怀备至又与世隔绝的生活。住的是国际饭店， 吃的是国际食品，喝的是国际饮料，在原处观看当地居民。严格有序的计划使旅游者难以自己一人闲逛，语言的障碍， 又使他们乐意接受保护。第三段涉及坚持民族模式化 ―― 老一套的想法， 所以一开始旅游， 你见到的民族特性就只是证实了你自己设想的基本事实 ―― 所有人民都是人类。 只有交朋友才能知道民族模式是多么荒谬、有害， 可是旅行社竭力制止，你又怎么能交上外国朋友呢?这一切说明A 项对。B.旅游很累。 C.导游观光很单调乏味。D.旅游确实对国家有贡献。
4.B 旅游的方式应改变。整篇文章(除第一段外)都环绕旅游方式不理想来进行批评。第二段集中在导游观光使旅游者难以和当地人民接触。第三段， 见到的只是证实了旅游者本人事先形成的思想/先入之见，旅游根本达不到了解对方的目的。第四段讲了民族固定模式(先入之见的模式) 的可怕后果。 要使人懂得所有的人们都是人类，彼此相似， 又各具特点，就得改变旅游的方式。A. 导游观光令人失望。C.旅游时，你见到的特性证实了你的先入之见。D.民族模式应当改变。这三条都是批评的具体内容。
5.D 人人都能享受大旅游。大旅行是专指英国富家子弟上学中的一门课程-到欧洲大陆观光。不是人人都能享受。这里用grand tour 表示人人都能享受类似grand tour 的一切，甚至超过， 如第一段指出：现代旅游者享受的舒适设施，达到了大旅行中老爷、小姐们做梦都没有想到的水平。 海陆空高级交流联络通讯系统，使人们有可能钱花得不多就能访问、观光别的国家。所以说，曾是有钱人专享的大旅行，普通人也能领略。“grand tour有引号，表”明作为比喻。 A. 费用不高。文内是费用合适、中等、恰当。B.当地观光受组织审查。C.人们喜欢一流舒适设施。
In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even questioned. There are countries where the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and pillaging. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence – as if it were a legitimate solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our instincts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the recorded history of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that violence never solves a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed, the suffering mean nothing. No solution ever comes to light the morning after when we dismally contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us. The truly reasonable men who know where the solutions lie are finding it harder and herder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted by their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. If half the energy that goes into violent acts were put to good use, if our efforts were directed at cleaning up the slums and ghettos, at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we would have gone a long way to arriving at a solution. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake. In a well-directed effort, it would not be impossible to fulfill the ideals of a stable social programme. The benefits that can be derived from constructive solutions are everywhere apparent in the world around us. Genuine and lasting solutions are always possible, providing we work within the framework of the law. Before we can even begin to contemplate peaceful co-existence between the races, we must appreciate each other's problems. And to do this, we must learn about them: it is a simple exercise in communication, in exchanging information. "Talk, talk, talk," the advocates of violence say, "all you ever do is talk, and we are none the wiser." It's rather like the story of the famous barrister who painstakingly explained his case to the judge. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser. "Possible, my lord," the barrister replied, "none the wiser, but surely far better informed." Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom: the knowledge that violence creates the evils it pretends to solve.
1. What is the best title for this passage?
[A] Advocating Violence.
[B] Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice.
[C] Important People on Both Sides See Violence As a Legitimate Solution.
[D] The Instincts of Human Race Are Thirsty for Violence.
2. Recorded history has taught us
[A] violence never solves anything. [B] nothing. [C] the bloodshed means nothing. [D]everything.
3. It can be inferred that truly reasonable men
[A] can't get a hearing.
[B] are looked down upon.
[C] are persecuted.
[D] Have difficulty in
advocating law enforcement.
4. "He was none the wiser" means
[A] he was not at all wise in listening.
[B] He was not at all wiser than nothing before.
[C] He gains nothing after listening.
[D] He makes no sense of the argument.
5. According the author the best way to solve race prejudice is
[A] law enforcement. [B] knowledge. [C] nonviolence. [D] Mopping up the violent mess.
1.B 暴力难以消除种族偏见。文章一开始就提出有些国家种族偏见严重，而暴力却是公认的一种解决方法。 白人采用暴力镇压， 黑人以防火、 掠抢为反抗。而双方的大人物平静地论及暴力， 似乎这是一种合法的解决方案。作者就此指出人类的进步只在于表面―― 衣饰等， 人类的本能没有改变。 整个有记录历史的文件没有教会人类任何东西。这是真正令人可怕的事件。第二段论及真正有理智的懂得解决方案所在的人鼓吹法制，人们不停。 他们反而收到轻视、迫害。作者就此提出假设，答出真正的解决方案嗜法制，以法治理。第三段进一步说明 “交流、 对话 ”是了解双方问题的前提，即使暴力者不同意，但知道暴力制造它假装要解决的罪恶，是智慧聪明的必要前提。A.鼓吹暴力。 C.双方重要人物都把暴力作为合法的解决方案。D. 人类的本性是嗜暴性。
3.D 在鼓吹法制方面有困难。答案在第二段， 真正有理智的人鼓吹法制，遭到同类们的轻视、不信任和迫害。他们发现要人倾听他们的意见越来越困难。A.人们不听。 B.遭人轻视。 C.遭人迫害。这三项都包含在D 项内。
4.C 听后无所得。 None the wiser 一点也不比以前聪明(这是按字面翻译)。实际就是 C 项。A.在倾听别人上他一点也不聪明。B. 他和以前一个样。 D.他听不懂论点。
5.A 法制。第二段最后一句，如果我们在法律的构架中进行工作，真正的持久的解决总是能实现的。第二段第二句，他们遭到迫害是因为他们鼓吹法制这种显然令人不能容忍的事。B.知识。 C.非暴力。 D.处理暴力带来的混乱。